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For every bookmaker has a rule for what happens to a wager if it is placed on an event that ends up being abandoned for some reason. As with pretty much anything in countries like the UK, weather can have a massive impact on whether an event is likely to finish. Obvious examples include such things as lightning storms or flash floods, but snow flurries that make it impossible to see the markings on the pitch or the ball can also give the match officials pause for thought. Crowd safety will always be one of the first things that is taken into consideration by those who decide whether or not a match will be allowed to carry on.

Show durability mod 1-3 2-4 betting system sports betting and sports book

Show durability mod 1-3 2-4 betting system

As shown in figure 3. Start Catalysts A "start" catalyst or "warm-up" catalyst is a low thermal inertia oxidation catalyst which is used upstream of the main catalyst in a catalyst control system. The performance criteria for the start catalyst are similar to those for the main catalyst but rapid light-off is given a much higher weighting and durability and resistance to "breakthrough" can be much less important.

In order to achieve this temperature rapidly, it is desirable to mount the catalyst very near the engine's exhaust ports, keep the thermal inertia of the catalyst low, and keep the volume of the catalyst low. Durability, resistance to "breakthrough" inadequate catalyst volume to convert high exhaust volumes , high warmed-up conversion efficiency and other such considerations, however, make it. The optimum start catalyst plumbing arrangement would be one that completely removes the exhaust gas from the start catalyst once the main catalyst has reached its light-off temperature.

In this way the start catalyst is not subjected to the deteriorating influence of the exhaust stream any more than is absolutely necessary. Figure 3. Other designs which remove the exhaust stream from the start catalyst have been developed by GM. Ford and Chrysler have experimented with start catalysts that are left on stream all of the time.

Ford did not report data on a system employing both the small start catalyst and the main catalyst. Proportional EGR EGR systems that are capable of delivering an optimum schedule of recirculated exhaust gases are necessary if the adverse impacts that less sophisticated systems have had in the past are to be eliminated.

While there is no EGR system yet in production that has been shown to provide optimum scheduling, several systems such as the GM back- pressure modulated system, appear to be better than others. The report team concludes that more development work in the EGR area is required since few manufacturers have been able to provide the EGR rate versus load information which EPA has specifically requested to be included in annual status reports for the last two years.

Modulated Air Injection It has long been recognized that an optimum air injection rate exists for every operating condition of the engine. An inadequate exhaust 02 level results in less than optimum tailpipe emission levels whether a catalyst is used or not.

Excessive 02 levels tencj to quench reactions in the exhaust manifold and catalyst. In general, it is desirable to maintain an air injection rate that keeps the percentage of oxygen in the exhaust stream constant. Most current AIR systems increase air flow as engine speed increases but decrease flow as engine load increases.

Relatively simple modulating valves, already mass produced, are capable of making a conventional AIR system deliver air in proportion to engine load. Achieving a consistent, well vaporized or atomized mixture of air and fuel during transient operation is, however, difficult. However, a sonic mixing device, developed by Dresser Industries, has demonstrated the capability to achieve the mixture uniformity necessary to realize the theoretical advantages of lean mixtures.

Dresser equipped vehicles tested by EPA and others have demonstrated that the level of "untreated" emissions necessary to achieve the Federal Standards. EPA knows of no instances where Dresser has been unable to achieve these levels when high volume exhaust manifolds are used to promote the thermal oxidation of HC and CO in the exhaust.

Even without catalysts Dresser test vehicles have approached or equaled the standards when some spark retard is used to r,educe HC. The use of a catalyst will, in the opinion of the report team, allow Dresser equipped vehicles to simultaneously achieve fuel economy that is superior to the economy achieved by typical vehicles in any previous model years, including uncontrolled.

Typical non-catalyst emission levels for Dresser equipped vehicles are shown in table 3. A more extensive discussion of the Dresser system can be found in Section 7. Since, however, HC emissions are to be the critical pollutant when trying to achieve the standards with high fuel economy, it may be a useful addition to future emission control systems.

The idea of the cold storage system is to trap hydrocarbon emissions in a charcoal adsorber during cold start and warm up operation. This is similar in concept to the technique currently used to control evaporative emissions but on a larger scale. During the first few minutes of engine operation the exhaust gas is directed through a bed of activated charcoal after it passes through the catalyst.

The size of the bed required is approximately equal to the size of the catalytic converter. When the catalyst reaches light off temperature, the air pump is used to purge the hydrocarbons stored. A schematic of the cold storage system is shown in Figure 3. Both Daimler-Benz Mercedes and General Motors have experience with the cold storage approach and both have reported data which shows the system to be highly effective.

GM reactivated cold storage work when it appeared that high HC emissions would keep their rotary engine from certifying in This fact gave some indication to the report that the cold storage system may not be as impractical as previously indicated, since it was resorted to when the desire to certify a particular engine was high. With this system, cold start HC emissions are essentially eliminated.

This reduces the need to employ alternate HC control methods which may have a detrimental effect on fuel economy. Data on a rotary engine test car are shown in table 3. Devices discussed earlier, such as Super EFE, are effective at shortening the period of time that rich mixtures are required by rapidly providing heat to the intake manifold. Other devices, such as the Dresser sonic carburetor, reduce or eliminate the need for mixture enrichment by improving the mixture preparation to the point that little or no enrichment is required even with a cold engine.

If a more volatile fuel than gasoline could be used during warm-up operation then adequate mixtures could be achieved with conventional engines. However, a means of obtaining a supply of volatile fuel from gasoline to be used only during cold starts, has been developed and several manufacturers reported the effect of such an approach on exhaust emissions.

A volatile supply of fuel for use during cold starts can be obtained by distillation of regular gasoline. By using heat to separate the more and less volatile fractions it is possible to divide the fuel supply once it is taken into the main fuel tank of the vehicle, A system developed by Mobil Oil uses electrical resistance to distill off the ligher fractions of gasoline and save them for use during cold start only.

After vehicle shut down the fuel in carburetor's float bowl is pumped back to the main tank and the float bowls are re-filled with LEF low emissions fuel from- the separate holding tank. After the engine becomes sufficiently warm to use heavier fuel, the LEF tank is turned off and the main fuel tank supplies the carburetor and provides enough fuel to the LEF generator to replenish the LEF tank.

LEF replenishment can be accomplished in about five minutes under normal conditions. Since the LEF system reduces emissions during the time period prior to catalyst light-off, the emissions reductions would be expected to be larger with a catalyst system where the cold start emissions are a larger fraction of the total emissions, Saab did test the LEF system on a catalyst car and showed the results in table 3.

Other manufacturers who claim they cannot meet the standards seem to be less interested in on-board fuel distillation. A schematic on the system tested by GM is shown in figure 3. Improved Thermal Treatment of Exhaust Gas Intelligent design of exhaust ports and exhaust manifolds can result in significant reductions in CO and particularly HC emissions compared to conventional, uncontrolled engine designs.

If the exhaust gases can be held at high temperature for a period of time, oxidation reactions continue to occur. Several means of holding the exhaust gas at a higher temperature for a longer period of time are available: 1. Improved Catalysts The difficulty associated with the emission levels of.

The more of the emission control burden that can be shifted off onto the aftertreatment system, the easier it becomes for any standard to be achieved and the easier it becomes to optimize for fuel economy. The improvement in catalyst performance that has been realized in the past five years has been significant and their is no reason to expect that the catalysts used on the models represent the ultimate in performance. Ford reported that they expect substantial improvements in catalysts efficiency due to the use of larger catalyst volumes on models.

Some of these systems are complicated compared to typical systems but they are not all required to' achieve the standards with good fuel economy. Some of these subsystems e. Dresser carburetor may turn out to be simpler and less expensive than the components they replace. Provided the necessity to meet stringent emission levels in the future is accepted by a manufacturer, the report team predicts the cost and complexity associated with any emission standard will continue to decrease with time.

The discussion in this section has been limited to the conventional engine. The alternative engines generally have higher first cost for a given emission level than those engines discussed here. First cost sticker price increase 2. Operating cost e. Maintenance cost 4. Investment cost 5. Reduced cost of plant, animal, and human health damage due to the improved air quality possible with various emission control systems. This section addreses only first cost in any detail. A fixed emission level system with higher first cost can produce lower total cost to the customer due to the reduced maintenance and improved fuel economy which may be possible with its use.

No evidence was uncovered which is at odds with the NAS conclusion that, " In this section the sticker price of emission control hardware will be shown on both an individual component and a system basis. It should be pointed out that the reader needs to be cautious in estimating any reductions in sticker price which might occur because of the removal of any emission control hardware which is already installed on vehicles or is planned for use in the near future.

Sticker prices include amortization of the costs of research, development, and tooling. Many of these costs have already been incurred for the systems necessary to achieve current and future emission standards and the customer will pay them whether or not the control hardware is ever installed in production. Another factor is that of the profit made on emission control hardware despite claims that might lead one to believe there is no profit in what the customer must pay for emission control.

Unless a lower profit is made on each car sold without some emission controls, the estimated sticker prices of control hardware will not be eliminated just because the hardware is not sold to the customer. An important consideration in evaluating the first cost associated a particular emission standard is that a learning process can be expected to take place. In section 4. All stick prices given in this section are in terms of January, dollars and in addition to value added the costs include amortization of research, development and tooling, dealer margin and profit.

Manufacturers who build their own hardware can be at a distinct advantage over other manufacturers who purchase hardware from supplies. Another important factor is the level of profit taken on emission control hard- ware. The most important factors affecting the cost of emission control componentry, however, may be the efficiency of the basic design used and production volume. All four of these factors are undoubtedly contributing to the differences in manufacturers estimated component costs which are shown in table 4.

The only significant discrepancy between the estimates of NAS and the report team for nominal component costs concerns the cost of electronic fuel injection. Mono cat chg. There is some difficulty in estimating costs for a particular standard because of the several combinations of individual components capable of achieving compliance. No very significant differences exist between NAS and the report team. The high "manufacturers' estimates" are generally from European manufacturers with low production volume.

Table 4. In addition to the cost of meeting the various standards during the year they become applicable the report team has also estimated the "essential" cost of meeting the same standards after a period for cost optimization. To meet the standards with better economy, however, it would have been necessary to increase system cost somewhat, for example, by using partial thermal reactors to eliminate the need for spark retard to control HC emissions.

At the Federal levels most cars could have certified with the use of unleaded fuel and more spark retard than was used on the models. Eventually Dresser type induction systems should be capable of achieving these standards without air pumps, EGR, or other devices. To maintain optimized fuel economy at these levels, it may be necessary to use high volume exhaust manifolds which would have a minimal cost increase over conventional manifolds.

In the longer term the Dresser-type of induction system should meet these levels with only spark retard. To achieve the Federal emission standards. At the Federal Standards, dual catalysts will be required both in and in the longer term assuming conventional engine technology.

The system choices discussed above are the report team's estimate of what can occur given the incentive on the part of the industry to meet future standards with low first cost or high fuel economy. As discussed earlier in this report, however, the system choices are made after considering many different aspects of automobile marketing strategy.

Since almost all of the information submitted to EPA was on sulfates, most of this chapter discusses sulfates with mention of the other unregulated emissions being limited to a summary. Hydrogen sulfide can be emitted from catalyst vehicles when they operate under rich conditions. Hydrogen sulfide has a characteristic "rotten egg" odor at levels far below those associated with adverse health effects. Scattered reports have been received of hydrogen sulfide odors from in-use catalyst vehicles.

EPA is still assessing the magnitude of this problem and what action can be taken to correct it. There have been many attempts to quantify noble metal emissions including platinum and palladium from catalyst equipped vehicles.

To date, noble metal emissions have been measured in only a few very isolated cases. Work to measure these emissions and to determine the health effects of noble metals is continuing. Regarding aldehydes, reactive organic compounds, and POMs, some work has been done in the past year indicating that emissions of these compounds greatly decrease with the use of catalysts.

Apparently, the catalyst preferentially oxidizes the more reactive hydrocarbon compounds in preference to less reactive ones. In fact, methane, a totally unreactive hydrocarbon, now comprises a greater percentage approximately 15 percent of exhaust hydrocarbons compared with pre-catalyst vehicles which have about 10 percent methane in the exhaust.

Since methane is not included in the ambient air quality standard, EPA is considering amending the automotive hydrocarbon standard to exclude methane. The decrease of these reactive emissions with the use of catalysts is a positive health benefit. Total particulate emissions of catalyst car burning unleaded fuel are substantially lower than pre-catalyst cars which burned leaded fuel.

The lower particulate emissions are due to the lack of lead compounds in the exhaust. Tests to date on oxidation catalyst vehicles have not shown any serious problem due to catalyst attrition products i. Some reduction catalysts which would be required to meet a 0. This phenomenon has occurred with the Gould reduction catalyst which emitted nickel compounds in preliminary EPA tests.

The seriousness of this problem is not known yet for the Gould catalyst,but will be evaluated in future programs. At any rate, catalyst attrition products have not been found to be a problem with oxidation catalysts. However, it has been found that catalyst cars have increased particulate, emissions, compared with non-catalyst cars burning unleaded fuel. This increase is due to formation of sulfur trioxide over the catalyst with subsequent combination of the SCL with water to form condensed sulfuric acid.

The SO. The sulfuric acid or sulfate, as it will be referred to, is considered a particulate and is emitted only from catalyst cars. Sulfates from catalyst cars account for less than 1 percent of the total sulfates in any AQCR with the remaining 99 percent coming from photochemical oxidation of SO- emitted from stationary sources. However, EPA is greatly concerned about automotive sulfate emissions since they can result in high localized sulfate levels along freeways and other places.

Most of the work done in the past year on unregulated emissions has been on sulfates. The first major conclusion that can be made from this work is that non-catalyst cars emit only trace quantities of sulfates with almost all of the fuel sulfur being emitted as SO. This finding is in contrast to some early work reported last year showing non-catalyst cars to emit substantial quantities of sulfate.

Extensive work has been done in the past year to determine emission factors for both pelleted and monolith catalyst cars. The first finding is that pelleted catalyst vehicles emit less sulfate under the FTP than monolith catalyst vehicles. This lower emission rate is due to a storage reaction of sulfates and the alumina.

This interaction occurs at low catalyst temperatures which occur at lower speeds and is reversible at higher catalyst temperatures where sulfates are released. Since monolith catalysts have only small quantities of alumina compared with pelleted catalysts, the storage phenomenon is much less pronounced for monolith catalysts. The sulfates stored on the pelleted catalyst under low speed conditions are later released in the transition from low to high speed driving, and makes measurement of sulfate emissions from under low speed conditions very difficult.

After the transition period from low to high speed driving, pelleted and monolith catalyst vehicles emit essentially the same quantities of sulfate at higher speeds 60 mph. Also, assumes utilization of air injection. Values for vehicles without air injection would be lower. These numbers are best engineering judgements based on the data discussed in this chapter. It is thought that, in accounting for the storage phenomenon, pelleted and monolith catalysts have essentially identical sulfate emissions over their lifetime.

In certain areas such as Southern California with fuel above the 0. Also,these estimates are based on full size cars and do not consider the improved fuel economy of smaller cars which would lower sulfate emissions. Any future improvements in fuel economy over that of cars will result in lower sulfate emissions. Various parameters on catalyst cars such as air injection rate, noble metal loading, residence time, and catalyst temperature can be optimized for maximum control of both sulfates and regulated gaseous emissions HC and CO.

Preliminary work done by GM and Exxon under an EPA contract suggests that control of air injection rate may be the most promising of these areas. While limiting the air injection rate decreases sulfates significantly, HC and CO emissions are increased. Work Is continuing in this area. Chemical traps installed after the catalyst also have the potential of controlling sulfates. The automobile companies are doing almost no work examining vehicle sulfate traps.

Most of the work being done on sulfate traps is through an EPA contract with Exxon. A calcium oxide trap has been tested for 25, miles and removed over 90 percent of the sulfate. By then, however, a serious back pressure had developed across the trap.

While work is continuing in this area, not enough data are available to determine if this is a feasible control technique. Results on this work to date show the following: 1. Gasoline desulfurization is technically feasible. About years would be needed for equipment installation. An additional potential cost implication in the fuel desulfurization issue is the fact that sulfur-free fuel may allow the use of base metal catalysts. These catalyst types are much cheaper than the noble metal ones used now and are not currently used because they suffered.

Sulfate emissions have been measured for a limited number of advanced catalyst systems and alternate engines. While definitive sulfate emission factors have not been obtained yet, it is our judgement that sulfate emissions from systems with a reduction and oxidation catalyst will be no higher than those from oxidation catalysts.

These low sulfate emissions are probably the result of close oxygen control required for operation of the catalyst. However, if the higher sulfur content of Diesel fuel is considered, the Diesel can possibly emit sulfates at rates approaching the catalyst vehicle. Therefore, all new systems do not have to be developed and certified, as was the case for the model year Most manufacturers will carry over their systems from to The process of carry over is the use of the certifi- cation from one model year for the next model year, which is permitted if the standards and test procedures are the same, as is the case for model year and This does not mean that there will be no activity in the emission control area, however.

It appears that the practice of making running changes to vehicles covered by existing certificates will increase greatly. Manufacturers appear to prefer this course of action, since in most cases they do not have to run durability cars if a running change is approved. The report team estimates that running changes will be the primary area of activity in the emission control certification effort for model year for most manufacturers, and that EPA will have to increase its efforts in this area to ensure that the effectiveness of the certification procedures are not compromised.

In summary, the report team expects that model year will be one that will involve a process of refinement of the current year systems. The first approach is the use of recalibrated systems like those used in to meet the California standards of 0.

The additional HC and CO control required could be achieved for example, by increased spark retard for HC control; and leaner overall carburetion calibrations, shorter choke times, and increased air injection rates; for CO control. While certainly a low-cost approach for the manufacturer the approach of recalibrating a California package is expected by the report team to result in a fuel economy penalty compared to the California package because we estimate that the increased spark retard will offset any improvements due to the extra enleanment.

HC is going to be the major problem, although improved control of both HC and CO are needed to meet the 0. HC is going to be the major problem for two reasons: a current oxidation catalysts have lower high mileage conversion efficiencies for HC than for CO. Indeed, today the desire is to advance the spark toward the optimum, as much as possible.

The report team uses the term AOC for Advanced Oxidation Catalyst to describe the systems that employ more advanced emission control that could be employed to meet the 0. There are three basic areas in which improved control can be obtained. These areas are: 1. These are improvements to the combustion process in the engine. Improvements to the systems that treat the exhaust after combustion takes place in the engine.

A more detailed description of the types of system that could achieve the desired results was provided in Section 3. Most manufacturers are aware of the capabilities of more advanced control technology, and some are actively working on improved systems.

However, most manufacturers, in the opinion of the report team, are working on improved oxidation catalyst systems at a relatively low level currently. One possible reason for this could be the current reduced level of employment in the industry in general and possibly in the emission control development area also, although we have no data on current employment levels in this area.

Another reason could be that the industry is waiting to see what will happen during the upcoming EPA Suspension Hearings, and also awaiting to see how their proposals to the Congress and the Administration for a moratorium on future standards are received. The choice of which systems will be used will depend on the specific engine family - emission control system - vehicle combination and its performance with respect to the 0.

More Importantly, the use of advanced systems for model year will depend greatly on the emphasis that any given manufacturer places on Improving or main- taining his fuel economy performance demonstrated in The report team estimates that the improvements generally to be in use for will include improved catalysts, improved air injection systems and better quick warm-up devices.

However, this is dependent on the assumption that the manufacturers now think that they will have to meet 0. The first type of durability testing is an attempt by manufacturers who used the crutch of catalyst replacement to pass certification in The data from such testing could be used as development data for model year The second type of durability testing contemplated is early model year durability testing.

This is planned by some domestic manufacturers for very early in calendar year While this early durability testing may give more time for the manufacturers to make more extensive running changes before model year , the report team considers it likely that the early certification durability attempts are too early to incorporate much in the way of improved technology.

A manufacturer may be reluctant to try to certify a more sophisticated package if he is successful at gettiing through certification durability with a simpler system, even if he sacrifices fuel economy potential, in the opinion of the report team. In general, extensive fleets of development durability vehicles with advanced systems are not now on the road, reflecting the same "wait and see" attitude discussed above in the discussion of Systems to be Used.

Advanced systems have been tested with a low level of effort with some encouraging low mileage results. A problem area is the lack of extensive development and durability testing mentioned above. The major problem at the level, in the opinion of the report team, is system selection for The manufacturers must be considering the answers to many difficult questions at this point in time.

Answers to questions such as: Am I going to have to meet the standards? Is one system cheaper than the others? Do the more expensive systems have greater fuel economy potential? By how much? Will people buy the more expensive vehicle if it has better fuel economy? They are the dual catalyst system and the 3-way catalyst system. It must be pointed out that no such development work was reported by the manufacturers. The second type of system under consideration for NOx levels below 2.

In fact it now appears to be the only system under active development at low NOx levels. This system employs a 3-way catalyst calibrated to bias the conversion to favor NOx removal although HC and CO are still converted and uses an oxidation catalyst downstream to convert any excess HC and CO. This system is much like a dual catalyst system. This is considered a promising development by the report team since it may be possible to achieve good 3-way conversion at lower cost. Most manufacturers that are developing the 3-way catalyst approach have been able to attain the 0.

Low-mileage and optimization testing of dual catalyst systems have not received much attention in the past year or so, a reflection of the generally low level of effort in the area of systems targeted toward 0. This promising system, which uses an oxygen removal catalyst an oxygen getter upstream of the NOx catalyst to improve its durability performance, has shown good low mileage activity, typically 75 to 80 percent net NOx conversion.

Many manufacturers have run no cars in the past year or have run just one or two. The most promising dual catalyst durability results have been reported by Gould with their latest system, with 50, equivalent miles on a dynamometer and 25, of AMA durability, both tests showing good net NOx conversion efficiency. With the assumption that the NOx conversion efficiency can be maintained at 75 percent at 50, miles, Gould's tests show over 80 percent at 25, miles and relatively low degradation in efficiency an estimate of the capability of such a system at 50, miles, calibrated for low engine-out NOx can be made.

With 75 percent efficiency and a 1. Fedor et. Gumbleton, et. Of course as mentioned above, HC may be a problem and the capability of such a system will not be known until such a system is built tip and tested. However, it does appear now that meeting 0. Durability testing with 3-way catalyst systems has been more extensive, but the results to date generally have not been encouraging.

The report team considers this 3-way approach to be less attractive than the dual catalyst approach at the 0. No automobile manufacturer has done as well, in the opinion of the report team. Progress has been made in the 3-way catalyst area also. Improved catalysts are now being developed and tested. This area of improved 3-way catalysts must progress much more than it has to date to have a chance at meeting 0.

While currently the best 3-way system might have a chance in a light weight vehicle, for vehicles more typical of heavy domestic automobiles the efficiencies are just not good enough at high mileage. Actually, the report team feels that the 3-way catalyst development work is not targeted at a 0. As pointed out in last year's report, the report team's analysis of the development programs actually targeted toward to 0. Development and durability programs are at such a low level of effort that it is doubtful that the manu- facturers can get going in time to meet the levels still required for , even though the report team feels that the 0.

Exhaust backpressure modulated EGR and electric assist chokes will be used on all models in Transmission-controlled spark delay valves will be completely eliminated. Six cylinder models will have a new stainless steel "hot spot" in the inlet manifold and a new combustion chamber to improve detonation control and allow more spark advance.

Pellets are spherical and are loaded with about. The V and V dual exhaust equipped vehicles utilize one catalyst on eacfc side of their exhaust systems. Systems durability data indicate that FTP fuel economy of the six cylinder models may be significantly improved over the comparable models; however eight cylinder models demonstrated insignificant changes in fuel economy.

This is primarily due to spark advance improvements on the six cylinder which were made possible by the improved combustion chamber. Also monolithic "start" catalysts near the exhaust manifold will be used on all models. Six cylinder models will use one "start" catalyst and eight cylinder models will use one on each bank.

The new combustion chamber design will be continued on the six cylinder models and introduced on eight cylinder models. AMC is investigating the use of a segmented monolithic main catalyst for Several thin catalyst "biscuits" are separated by airspaces to promote turbulent exhaust gas flow through the converter.

Initial test results indicated a HC deterioration problem. The report team could not varify this fuel penalty as AMC vehicles achieved the levels in only a few instances. Some of those used methanol in the fuel. The use of the stainless steel "hot spot" will be extended to include eight cylinder models in addition to the six cylinder models. Six cylinder models will use one reduction catalyst and eight cylinder models will use two. Initial results of.

This is the only so-called system tested by AMC in No further details or data were submitted on rotary engines. No data was presented on advanced AIR or fuel metering systems. Electronic control systems have hot been utilized except for electronic ignition. No evidence of 3-way catalyst testing was reported. No improvements have been noted for the AMC bimetallic actuated heat riser.

In the opinion of the report team, the inexperience of AMC with advanced emission control systems, especially advanced fuel metering systems, will cause unnecessary problems for AMC at emission levels.

The cars were equipped with upgraded California systems, which for the most part amounted to recalibration of ignition, carburetion and air injection rates along with the addition of a low thermal mass monolithic converter between the exhaust manifold and the conventional underfloor pelletted converter.

None of the five ' cars complied with. One car accumulated 50, miles and the remainder were at approximately 25, miles. The systems will generally be improved over the systems, especially for the 6-cylinder models, AMC's biggest sellers. Improvements to the EGR systems, proportional , spark modulation systems TCS eliminated , induction system new hot spot manifolds and electric assist chokes , and a revised combustion chamber allowing more spark advance will all tend to improve the entire control system over the package.

A problem for AMC for is that the V-8 engines will apparently not get all of the improvements that the six cylinder engine gets, probably because the V-8's are not as important a part of AMC's sales picture as are the sixes, in the opinion of the report team. Progress and Problems - Model Year Because AMC's underfloor converters take a relatively long time to light off, they are developing a system that employes an additional low thermal inertia oxidation catalyst upstream of the main catalyst.

This configuration has many of the properties of a "start catalyst" system. The catalyst may or may not remain on-stream all of the time. The major durability test reported was one that, besides emission control system deterioration, included several other tests in addition. The test involved operation on Ohio interstate highways not AMA for mileage accumulation, the evaluation of medium and low ash oils, an investigation of the effects of a 10 percent methano1 fuel in additional to commercial unleaded Sohio Cetrol fuel, evaluation of a carburetor detergent versus dispersant plus solvent oil, and the evaluation of two different air injection configurations.

This development durability test should yield much information to AMC, but it really does not indicate AMC's capability to certify at The report team considers it likely that AMC will use this test to generate know- ledge that will be useful in building up a pre-certification fleet in the future. Apparently, AMC has waited for a system that they feel has some potential for success at the 0. The Gould system is the best one around at this point in time in the opinion of the report team. AMC reported no data from this system, because it has not been tested yet.

The report team considers AMC's interest in this advanced dual catalyst system to be encouraging since many other manufacturers seem to be unaware of this system and its potential. AMC's major problems at the 0. No data on any 0. Chrysler 7. Systems to be Used Systems to be Used - Model Year Chrysler Corporation will be recertifying virtually their entire line in in an effort to improve fuel economy and reduce costs over the models.

Chrysler systems for are described in table Chrysler The older ported EGR is still used on the State catalyst vehicles, and the improved venturi vacuum amplified EGR is used on all others. In Chrysler testing it has not been as effective as air injection for HC and CO oxidation or fuel economy optimization.

Catalyst loadings are stated in Table Chrysler The catalyst protection device on the California engine relocates the throttle stop positioner to provide more intake air flow during decelerations which begin at engine speeds above rpm. The OSAC is a spark delay valve. CCEGR prevents EGR system operation while the engine is cold, and the electrically assisted chokes provide more consistent choke operation. This is to reduce the engine's heat rejection and prevent cooling system boil over.

CCIE supplements the choke and provides more accurate cold idle fuel management. The initial cost of Chrysler vehicles is expected to be an average of nineteen dollars cheaper than the models. Fuel economy of the models is compared to models in table Chrysler On V-8 engines there will be a start catalyst on only one bank with a power heat valve on the other bank to provide maximum exhaust flow through the start catalyst during warm up.

Six cylinder models will not need the valve system. Other systems still being considered include dual start catalysts on V-8 models, improved main catalysts to eliminate the start catalyst, a lean burn-oxidation catalyst system with electronic spark advance on the six cylinder and small V-8 models, and a dual catalyst system to eliminate EGR and OSAC NOx controls.

The report team feels that the dual catalyst approach is unnecessary at the 2. Table Chrysler-2 i? Both noble metal and base metal NOx catalysts are still under consideration. Chrysler development in most of these areas has not progressed much in the past year. This will handicap Chrysler durability efforts at this control level by placing greater burdens on the Chrysler catalysts.

Furthermore fuel economy cannot be optimized using the control systems tested by Chrysler at the levels. No cost estimates were submitted for the model year systems. The Bendix electronic fuel injection system is to be installed on two Chrysler vehicles soon in an attempt to improve fuel management for A Chrysler electronic fuel injection system also is being developed.

This system in conjunction with a Chrysler induction system produces sonic mixture velocities and has extended the lean misfire point to. Initial results show 2. This system is eventually intended for use with oxidation and 3-Way catalysts.

Also, the report team feels that this system with an oxidation catalyst could prove to be a promising system for if development work could be hastened. The electric hot spot EHS provides electrical heating below the carburetor to a grid in the manifold during warm up.

Marked cold driveability improvements were noted with the EHS. The levels were achieved by the aluminum intake manifold equipped system. System emissions without the aluminum manifold were not stated by Chrysler. Also the engine ran very smoothly and required much less additional fuel to operate than was anticipated according to Chrysler. A single plane "hot well manifold" has been developed with an improved hot spot for faster warm up. An improved EGR system is to be developed to increase the EGR rate at low vacuum and keep the percent diluent more constant.

This should be similar to proportional EGR systems that others have had for some time now. Also, an electronic EGR system is being prepared for testing. Other notable systems for which little or no new data were presented were the modulated AIR system, the TCCS V-8, or the prechamber stratified charge The variations in this fleet include different catalyst sizes and loadings along with different exhaust heat valve arrangements.

No mileage or emissions data were reported. This effort involves three cars equipped with the following NOx catalysts: noble metal on ceramic substrate; an ICI catalyst on ceramic substrate; and a base metal on metallic substrate. The best durability was achieved with the noble metal catalyst which had a total of 20, miles when the test was terminated due to engine problems.

The deterioration of this catalyst was very slight over this mileage. The ICI equipped car produced the lowest emissions at the start but was significantly degraded after 10, miles. Chrysler has halted all durability testing pending further developmental progress on systems at this emission level. The changes are extensive enough, however, to require Chrysler to recertify most models for i1 Chrysler has also gained valuable field experience with a car fleet' of catalyst-equipped vehicles.

This field experience has been valuable to Chrysler by identifying user problems such as warm-up driveability, detonation, and odor. Because this test started in January, , Chrysler stated that they were able to remedy many problem areas in their models. Progress and Problems - Model Year At the 0. Testing of improved catalysts, miniconverters, improved warm-up devices, improved EGR, improved exhaust manifolds and improved air injection systems has all been carried out on a developmental basis.

The major problem for Chrysler at the 0. This is not too surprising, since the report team has observed that many manufacturers develop the components of advanced systems separately and only put them all together when it is very clear that they are going to have to meet the standards that such full-effort systems require.

Chrysler apparently is not at this point yet. An additional problem for Chrysler at the 0. Some tests may be just beginning, however the systems may not include all of the components, and the fleet apparently consists of only 7 vehicles. NOx catalysts made by Chrysler and other catalyst manu- facturers have been bench tested. A limited amount of vehicle low mileage testing was reported by Chrysler but no extensive durability results were reported.

Chrysler stated in their status report that the vehicle was going to be durability tested in the future. The report team learned that the system was destroyed by the combination of fuel run out and ignition failure on several tests before the vehicle was to be durability tested. See section 7. Both Engelhard and Matthey-Bishop catalysts are used. Noble metal loadings are of 66 percent platinum and 34 percent palladium for Engelhard catalysts and 93 percent platinum and 7 percent other noble metal for Matthey- Bishop catalysts.

Ford uses three different monolithic substrates in nine different sizes including either oval or circular cross sections. The "half pass" only half of V-8 exhaust is catalytically treated catalyst system will be used on all engines larger than the CID except on the CID Granadas and Monarchs. Catalyst protection is achieved by venting the air pump to the atmosphere when the vehicle floor temperature exceeds a predetermined value.

Improved EGR systems are discussed in the Ford application for certification; however, they are not used in Both are more proportional than current EGR systems and according to Ford can provide up to 1 mpg improvement in fuel economy at the 2. Spark delay valves, heated intake air, and electric assit chokes are some minor systems frequently used by Ford. Changes in costs and economy for the models were not stated by Ford. In the opinion of the report team there is not much chance of improved fuel economy over the models unless the California AIR, EGR, oxidation catalyst full pass systems are recalibrated to the 1.

Larger, improved monolithic catalysts will be used with the exhaust backpressure modulated EGR, high energy ignition HEI , and variable venturi series carburetors on some models. Remaining models will use conventional carburetors. Internal engine changes will include reduced valve overlap for improved low speed operation and combustion chamber modifications to improve fuel economy and emissions.

The Ford introduction of HEI lags behind others in the industry, but should provide some improvements in emissions, driveability, and fuel economy. Also, Ford indicated that an unknown fuel penalty would be realized in This could not be verified by the report team due to the absence of fuel economy data in the Ford status report.

Ford later stated that "vehicle testing to date of backpressure EGR system indicates a potential increase of up to 05 to 1. Vehicles powered by the and CID engine have demonstrated the levels at 50, miles. Seven Ford vehicles achieved the levels in certification.

Included were vehicles powered by the and CID engines and the and truck engines. Also some cylinder head and inlet manifold modifications will be made. The sonic carburetor will probably be a Ford model rather than the Dresserator as Ford has shown considerable interest in duplicating Dresser's results with Ford hardware.

Average driveability was rated at 5. Also a 2. Average driveability was rated acceptable at 6. The Gould NOx catalyst in a dual catalyst system is an alternate system. Gould achieved. Ford could not duplicate these levels after receiving the vehicle. Further testing is planned using the GEM 68 catalyst with the "Getter". The Questor system is another alternate system. An early Questor system achieved the levels on a Ib. Similar results occurred with an improved Questor system on a 2.

The Pinto will receive system modifications and further testing. Other Systems Systems using start catalysts and exhaust HC storage canisters have been studied and dropped. The start catalyst, despite much improved warm up characteristics, were said to have poor durability. HC storage canisters were said to have safety and purging problems. Single cylinder tests will be conducted to optimize the "fast burn" concept.

Increased EGR tolerance is expected to provide lower NOx emissions, lower octane requirements, and improved engine efficiency with a HC emissions penalty due to lower exhaust temperatures. Modulated AIR experiments are being conducted to optimize air flow rate. Three different sonic carburetors are being studied.

Two are Ford models and the third is the Dresserator. The vehicle achieved. On a FTP basis these results would be. Spark retard was utilized to lower HC emissions below the. The fuel economy was 7 percent better than the average vehicle of the same weight class. Driveability of this vehicle was judged to be acceptable by EPA personnel. Data from Dresser indicated that without spark retard, fuel economy can be improved by 20 percent while HC emissions double.

With a catalytic control system, the Dresser vehicles could have fuel economy better than uncontrolled cars and achieve the. The report team believes that serious develop- ment could provide a cost effective sonic carburetor-catalyst system for A viable production program requires that these prechamber engines can be mass produced if NOx emission standard is retained at the 2.

Conventional engines can obtain the 2. The report team does not wish to criticize the CVCC approach as we feel that with EGRoptimization and exhaust aftertreatment, the CVCC approach may prove to be competitive at the more stringent levels in both emissions and fuel economy.

Ford indicated that some EGR studies will be made in the future. A dynamically scavenaged prechamber system which eliminated the additional inlet valve has been dropped because of poor fuel economy. No supporting data was provided.

An "add-on" prechamber device is also being studied. No data was provided for this system either. The higher NOx calibrations failed to provide significant changes in fuel economy. Similar conventional Ford vehicles achieved about 11 mpg in certification. All systems were optimized for fuel economy and Early results were reported as in table Ford Fuel economy of comparable conventional Ford models was about 10 mpg. Spray Angle 1. Spray Angle 2. The cars are basic production with the addition of monolithic oxidation catalysts along with a catalyst overtemperature protection system and the Ford air injection Thermactor system for reducing HC and CO.

These vehicles have been assigned to three large fleet operators. Ninety of the vehicles are serving as a control group and are being emission tested periodically. The remaining vehicles and the control groups will be tested whenever there is a customer complaint.

Forty-three vehicles in the control group have now completed 24, miles. The average emissions level for these 43 vehicles has remained below the. Some preliminary conclusions of Ford were that the oxidation catalysts experienced a decreasing rate of deterioration and that CO and NOx emissions were affected by the maintenance performed. Nineteen catalyst failures were experienced. All of the failures involved partial melting of the catalysts and were attributed by Ford to misfiring caused by faulty ignition systems.

The catalyst overtemp protection circuit which dumps the Thermactor air supply was ineffective because sufficient air was already in the exhaust to cause catalyst damage. The two rough road cars have gone their scheduled miles with no reported problems. The two general durability cars have accumulated 48, and 49, miles respectively, with no catalyst problems reported.

A Dearborn car fleet is accumulating customer type mileage. Equipped identically as the previously mentioned fleets except for the addition of a breakerless ignition system, these cars are being operated by Ford engineers with close attention being paid to performance, warm-up and driveability characteristics. Seventeen cars are at or beyond 15, miles and one car has reached 45, miles. The emissions level of the car at 45, miles was 0. Three catalyst failures were experienced as the result of ignition system breakdown.

The " Catalyst Durability Fleet" initiated in July , consists of 12 vehicles representing a cross-section of the Ford model line. This fleet was established to evaluate the effectiveness of different catalyst volumes and suppliers in reaching the 50, mile durability goal at the. Nine vehicles have reached the 50, mile mark and one vehicle is at 25, miles. The remaining two vehicles were eliminated at 35, and 45, miles, respectively, due to catalyst melting problems. H Fast MH Mod. Fast MH Mod.

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QLD PREMIER RUGBY BETTING FORUM

No automobile manufacturer has done as well, in the opinion of the report team. Progress has been made in the 3-way catalyst area also. Improved catalysts are now being developed and tested. This area of improved 3-way catalysts must progress much more than it has to date to have a chance at meeting 0.

While currently the best 3-way system might have a chance in a light weight vehicle, for vehicles more typical of heavy domestic automobiles the efficiencies are just not good enough at high mileage. Actually, the report team feels that the 3-way catalyst development work is not targeted at a 0.

As pointed out in last year's report, the report team's analysis of the development programs actually targeted toward to 0. Development and durability programs are at such a low level of effort that it is doubtful that the manu- facturers can get going in time to meet the levels still required for , even though the report team feels that the 0. Exhaust backpressure modulated EGR and electric assist chokes will be used on all models in Transmission-controlled spark delay valves will be completely eliminated.

Six cylinder models will have a new stainless steel "hot spot" in the inlet manifold and a new combustion chamber to improve detonation control and allow more spark advance. Pellets are spherical and are loaded with about. The V and V dual exhaust equipped vehicles utilize one catalyst on eacfc side of their exhaust systems. Systems durability data indicate that FTP fuel economy of the six cylinder models may be significantly improved over the comparable models; however eight cylinder models demonstrated insignificant changes in fuel economy.

This is primarily due to spark advance improvements on the six cylinder which were made possible by the improved combustion chamber. Also monolithic "start" catalysts near the exhaust manifold will be used on all models. Six cylinder models will use one "start" catalyst and eight cylinder models will use one on each bank.

The new combustion chamber design will be continued on the six cylinder models and introduced on eight cylinder models. AMC is investigating the use of a segmented monolithic main catalyst for Several thin catalyst "biscuits" are separated by airspaces to promote turbulent exhaust gas flow through the converter.

Initial test results indicated a HC deterioration problem. The report team could not varify this fuel penalty as AMC vehicles achieved the levels in only a few instances. Some of those used methanol in the fuel. The use of the stainless steel "hot spot" will be extended to include eight cylinder models in addition to the six cylinder models.

Six cylinder models will use one reduction catalyst and eight cylinder models will use two. Initial results of. This is the only so-called system tested by AMC in No further details or data were submitted on rotary engines. No data was presented on advanced AIR or fuel metering systems. Electronic control systems have hot been utilized except for electronic ignition.

No evidence of 3-way catalyst testing was reported. No improvements have been noted for the AMC bimetallic actuated heat riser. In the opinion of the report team, the inexperience of AMC with advanced emission control systems, especially advanced fuel metering systems, will cause unnecessary problems for AMC at emission levels. The cars were equipped with upgraded California systems, which for the most part amounted to recalibration of ignition, carburetion and air injection rates along with the addition of a low thermal mass monolithic converter between the exhaust manifold and the conventional underfloor pelletted converter.

None of the five ' cars complied with. One car accumulated 50, miles and the remainder were at approximately 25, miles. The systems will generally be improved over the systems, especially for the 6-cylinder models, AMC's biggest sellers. Improvements to the EGR systems, proportional , spark modulation systems TCS eliminated , induction system new hot spot manifolds and electric assist chokes , and a revised combustion chamber allowing more spark advance will all tend to improve the entire control system over the package.

A problem for AMC for is that the V-8 engines will apparently not get all of the improvements that the six cylinder engine gets, probably because the V-8's are not as important a part of AMC's sales picture as are the sixes, in the opinion of the report team. Progress and Problems - Model Year Because AMC's underfloor converters take a relatively long time to light off, they are developing a system that employes an additional low thermal inertia oxidation catalyst upstream of the main catalyst.

This configuration has many of the properties of a "start catalyst" system. The catalyst may or may not remain on-stream all of the time. The major durability test reported was one that, besides emission control system deterioration, included several other tests in addition. The test involved operation on Ohio interstate highways not AMA for mileage accumulation, the evaluation of medium and low ash oils, an investigation of the effects of a 10 percent methano1 fuel in additional to commercial unleaded Sohio Cetrol fuel, evaluation of a carburetor detergent versus dispersant plus solvent oil, and the evaluation of two different air injection configurations.

This development durability test should yield much information to AMC, but it really does not indicate AMC's capability to certify at The report team considers it likely that AMC will use this test to generate know- ledge that will be useful in building up a pre-certification fleet in the future. Apparently, AMC has waited for a system that they feel has some potential for success at the 0.

The Gould system is the best one around at this point in time in the opinion of the report team. AMC reported no data from this system, because it has not been tested yet. The report team considers AMC's interest in this advanced dual catalyst system to be encouraging since many other manufacturers seem to be unaware of this system and its potential.

AMC's major problems at the 0. No data on any 0. Chrysler 7. Systems to be Used Systems to be Used - Model Year Chrysler Corporation will be recertifying virtually their entire line in in an effort to improve fuel economy and reduce costs over the models.

Chrysler systems for are described in table Chrysler The older ported EGR is still used on the State catalyst vehicles, and the improved venturi vacuum amplified EGR is used on all others. In Chrysler testing it has not been as effective as air injection for HC and CO oxidation or fuel economy optimization. Catalyst loadings are stated in Table Chrysler The catalyst protection device on the California engine relocates the throttle stop positioner to provide more intake air flow during decelerations which begin at engine speeds above rpm.

The OSAC is a spark delay valve. CCEGR prevents EGR system operation while the engine is cold, and the electrically assisted chokes provide more consistent choke operation. This is to reduce the engine's heat rejection and prevent cooling system boil over. CCIE supplements the choke and provides more accurate cold idle fuel management. The initial cost of Chrysler vehicles is expected to be an average of nineteen dollars cheaper than the models.

Fuel economy of the models is compared to models in table Chrysler On V-8 engines there will be a start catalyst on only one bank with a power heat valve on the other bank to provide maximum exhaust flow through the start catalyst during warm up. Six cylinder models will not need the valve system. Other systems still being considered include dual start catalysts on V-8 models, improved main catalysts to eliminate the start catalyst, a lean burn-oxidation catalyst system with electronic spark advance on the six cylinder and small V-8 models, and a dual catalyst system to eliminate EGR and OSAC NOx controls.

The report team feels that the dual catalyst approach is unnecessary at the 2. Table Chrysler-2 i? Both noble metal and base metal NOx catalysts are still under consideration. Chrysler development in most of these areas has not progressed much in the past year. This will handicap Chrysler durability efforts at this control level by placing greater burdens on the Chrysler catalysts. Furthermore fuel economy cannot be optimized using the control systems tested by Chrysler at the levels. No cost estimates were submitted for the model year systems.

The Bendix electronic fuel injection system is to be installed on two Chrysler vehicles soon in an attempt to improve fuel management for A Chrysler electronic fuel injection system also is being developed. This system in conjunction with a Chrysler induction system produces sonic mixture velocities and has extended the lean misfire point to.

Initial results show 2. This system is eventually intended for use with oxidation and 3-Way catalysts. Also, the report team feels that this system with an oxidation catalyst could prove to be a promising system for if development work could be hastened. The electric hot spot EHS provides electrical heating below the carburetor to a grid in the manifold during warm up.

Marked cold driveability improvements were noted with the EHS. The levels were achieved by the aluminum intake manifold equipped system. System emissions without the aluminum manifold were not stated by Chrysler. Also the engine ran very smoothly and required much less additional fuel to operate than was anticipated according to Chrysler. A single plane "hot well manifold" has been developed with an improved hot spot for faster warm up. An improved EGR system is to be developed to increase the EGR rate at low vacuum and keep the percent diluent more constant.

This should be similar to proportional EGR systems that others have had for some time now. Also, an electronic EGR system is being prepared for testing. Other notable systems for which little or no new data were presented were the modulated AIR system, the TCCS V-8, or the prechamber stratified charge The variations in this fleet include different catalyst sizes and loadings along with different exhaust heat valve arrangements.

No mileage or emissions data were reported. This effort involves three cars equipped with the following NOx catalysts: noble metal on ceramic substrate; an ICI catalyst on ceramic substrate; and a base metal on metallic substrate. The best durability was achieved with the noble metal catalyst which had a total of 20, miles when the test was terminated due to engine problems. The deterioration of this catalyst was very slight over this mileage.

The ICI equipped car produced the lowest emissions at the start but was significantly degraded after 10, miles. Chrysler has halted all durability testing pending further developmental progress on systems at this emission level. The changes are extensive enough, however, to require Chrysler to recertify most models for i1 Chrysler has also gained valuable field experience with a car fleet' of catalyst-equipped vehicles. This field experience has been valuable to Chrysler by identifying user problems such as warm-up driveability, detonation, and odor.

Because this test started in January, , Chrysler stated that they were able to remedy many problem areas in their models. Progress and Problems - Model Year At the 0. Testing of improved catalysts, miniconverters, improved warm-up devices, improved EGR, improved exhaust manifolds and improved air injection systems has all been carried out on a developmental basis. The major problem for Chrysler at the 0. This is not too surprising, since the report team has observed that many manufacturers develop the components of advanced systems separately and only put them all together when it is very clear that they are going to have to meet the standards that such full-effort systems require.

Chrysler apparently is not at this point yet. An additional problem for Chrysler at the 0. Some tests may be just beginning, however the systems may not include all of the components, and the fleet apparently consists of only 7 vehicles. NOx catalysts made by Chrysler and other catalyst manu- facturers have been bench tested.

A limited amount of vehicle low mileage testing was reported by Chrysler but no extensive durability results were reported. Chrysler stated in their status report that the vehicle was going to be durability tested in the future. The report team learned that the system was destroyed by the combination of fuel run out and ignition failure on several tests before the vehicle was to be durability tested.

See section 7. Both Engelhard and Matthey-Bishop catalysts are used. Noble metal loadings are of 66 percent platinum and 34 percent palladium for Engelhard catalysts and 93 percent platinum and 7 percent other noble metal for Matthey- Bishop catalysts. Ford uses three different monolithic substrates in nine different sizes including either oval or circular cross sections. The "half pass" only half of V-8 exhaust is catalytically treated catalyst system will be used on all engines larger than the CID except on the CID Granadas and Monarchs.

Catalyst protection is achieved by venting the air pump to the atmosphere when the vehicle floor temperature exceeds a predetermined value. Improved EGR systems are discussed in the Ford application for certification; however, they are not used in Both are more proportional than current EGR systems and according to Ford can provide up to 1 mpg improvement in fuel economy at the 2. Spark delay valves, heated intake air, and electric assit chokes are some minor systems frequently used by Ford.

Changes in costs and economy for the models were not stated by Ford. In the opinion of the report team there is not much chance of improved fuel economy over the models unless the California AIR, EGR, oxidation catalyst full pass systems are recalibrated to the 1.

Larger, improved monolithic catalysts will be used with the exhaust backpressure modulated EGR, high energy ignition HEI , and variable venturi series carburetors on some models. Remaining models will use conventional carburetors. Internal engine changes will include reduced valve overlap for improved low speed operation and combustion chamber modifications to improve fuel economy and emissions.

The Ford introduction of HEI lags behind others in the industry, but should provide some improvements in emissions, driveability, and fuel economy. Also, Ford indicated that an unknown fuel penalty would be realized in This could not be verified by the report team due to the absence of fuel economy data in the Ford status report. Ford later stated that "vehicle testing to date of backpressure EGR system indicates a potential increase of up to 05 to 1.

Vehicles powered by the and CID engine have demonstrated the levels at 50, miles. Seven Ford vehicles achieved the levels in certification. Included were vehicles powered by the and CID engines and the and truck engines. Also some cylinder head and inlet manifold modifications will be made. The sonic carburetor will probably be a Ford model rather than the Dresserator as Ford has shown considerable interest in duplicating Dresser's results with Ford hardware.

Average driveability was rated at 5. Also a 2. Average driveability was rated acceptable at 6. The Gould NOx catalyst in a dual catalyst system is an alternate system. Gould achieved. Ford could not duplicate these levels after receiving the vehicle. Further testing is planned using the GEM 68 catalyst with the "Getter". The Questor system is another alternate system. An early Questor system achieved the levels on a Ib.

Similar results occurred with an improved Questor system on a 2. The Pinto will receive system modifications and further testing. Other Systems Systems using start catalysts and exhaust HC storage canisters have been studied and dropped. The start catalyst, despite much improved warm up characteristics, were said to have poor durability. HC storage canisters were said to have safety and purging problems. Single cylinder tests will be conducted to optimize the "fast burn" concept.

Increased EGR tolerance is expected to provide lower NOx emissions, lower octane requirements, and improved engine efficiency with a HC emissions penalty due to lower exhaust temperatures. Modulated AIR experiments are being conducted to optimize air flow rate. Three different sonic carburetors are being studied. Two are Ford models and the third is the Dresserator.

The vehicle achieved. On a FTP basis these results would be. Spark retard was utilized to lower HC emissions below the. The fuel economy was 7 percent better than the average vehicle of the same weight class. Driveability of this vehicle was judged to be acceptable by EPA personnel. Data from Dresser indicated that without spark retard, fuel economy can be improved by 20 percent while HC emissions double.

With a catalytic control system, the Dresser vehicles could have fuel economy better than uncontrolled cars and achieve the. The report team believes that serious develop- ment could provide a cost effective sonic carburetor-catalyst system for A viable production program requires that these prechamber engines can be mass produced if NOx emission standard is retained at the 2.

Conventional engines can obtain the 2. The report team does not wish to criticize the CVCC approach as we feel that with EGRoptimization and exhaust aftertreatment, the CVCC approach may prove to be competitive at the more stringent levels in both emissions and fuel economy. Ford indicated that some EGR studies will be made in the future. A dynamically scavenaged prechamber system which eliminated the additional inlet valve has been dropped because of poor fuel economy.

No supporting data was provided. An "add-on" prechamber device is also being studied. No data was provided for this system either. The higher NOx calibrations failed to provide significant changes in fuel economy. Similar conventional Ford vehicles achieved about 11 mpg in certification. All systems were optimized for fuel economy and Early results were reported as in table Ford Fuel economy of comparable conventional Ford models was about 10 mpg.

Spray Angle 1. Spray Angle 2. The cars are basic production with the addition of monolithic oxidation catalysts along with a catalyst overtemperature protection system and the Ford air injection Thermactor system for reducing HC and CO. These vehicles have been assigned to three large fleet operators. Ninety of the vehicles are serving as a control group and are being emission tested periodically. The remaining vehicles and the control groups will be tested whenever there is a customer complaint.

Forty-three vehicles in the control group have now completed 24, miles. The average emissions level for these 43 vehicles has remained below the. Some preliminary conclusions of Ford were that the oxidation catalysts experienced a decreasing rate of deterioration and that CO and NOx emissions were affected by the maintenance performed.

Nineteen catalyst failures were experienced. All of the failures involved partial melting of the catalysts and were attributed by Ford to misfiring caused by faulty ignition systems. The catalyst overtemp protection circuit which dumps the Thermactor air supply was ineffective because sufficient air was already in the exhaust to cause catalyst damage.

The two rough road cars have gone their scheduled miles with no reported problems. The two general durability cars have accumulated 48, and 49, miles respectively, with no catalyst problems reported. A Dearborn car fleet is accumulating customer type mileage. Equipped identically as the previously mentioned fleets except for the addition of a breakerless ignition system, these cars are being operated by Ford engineers with close attention being paid to performance, warm-up and driveability characteristics.

Seventeen cars are at or beyond 15, miles and one car has reached 45, miles. The emissions level of the car at 45, miles was 0. Three catalyst failures were experienced as the result of ignition system breakdown.

The " Catalyst Durability Fleet" initiated in July , consists of 12 vehicles representing a cross-section of the Ford model line. This fleet was established to evaluate the effectiveness of different catalyst volumes and suppliers in reaching the 50, mile durability goal at the. Nine vehicles have reached the 50, mile mark and one vehicle is at 25, miles.

The remaining two vehicles were eliminated at 35, and 45, miles, respectively, due to catalyst melting problems. The 12 vehicles consisted of two each of six different models. The " Catalyst Technology Fleet" is a second effort at the. Thirty-five vehicles began accumulating mileage in May with more advanced monolithic catalysts employing larger volumes and cell densities. Mileage to date on the vehicles ranges up to 30, The highest mileage emission data reported was for four vehicles at the 25, mile level.

At this point the vehicles were well below. As with the " Catalyst Durability Fleet", this fleet is receiving corrective maintenance based on emission levels, which is not allowable in official EPA procedures. The objective of this fleet is to provide performance and deterioration information that will enable Ford to objectively evalutate monolithic versus pelleted catalysts.

An average of 40, miles has been accumulated. No failures were reported but the emission data at the higher mileages shows the average levels of all cars to be in excess of. The objective of this effort was to attain predetermined feed gas non-catalyst emission levels on vehicle fleets tested at sea level and at altitude.

The selected levels represented Ford's estimate of the degree of emission control needed up-stream of the catalyst to meet the. The majority of the sea level fleet met the feel gas level goal but the fleet at altitude was unsuccessful. The sea level and altitude fleets consisted of eight and five cars respectively which represented a cross section of Ford models.

A total of miles was accumulated on each car. The system was calibrated to meet the. Some emission system failures were experienced but the engine and injection system were relatively trouble free. The fuel economy ranged between mpg. Durability Testing Programs - Model Year Ford reported progress on two vehicle durability tests of systems targeted for NOx below 2.

The first test involved a 20, mile test of a Questor equipped W-2V Ford. The emission level at zero mileage was 0. The HC control deteriorated rapidly between 15, and 20, miles where it jumped from 0. Ford reported that secondary air system malfunctions and low compression in one cylinder accounted for much of the degradation.

The second Ford effort at NOx below 2. The zero mileage emissions were comparable to the Ford described above, but the system control deteriorated quickly due to an insufficient secondary air system. The test was stopped at miles and the vehicle was returned to Questor for modification. Ford's approach using the half-pass system will be continued on most large engined-vehicles.

Ford could have used as a year to try and certify full catalytic control systems that might have allowed them to catch up some to their competition in fuel economy, but the report team feels that Ford does not want to accept the extra cost or the possibility that they might certify too low and meet the standards one. Progress and Problems - Model Year Ford has made significant progress in system selection for All models will use full catalytic treatment of the exhaust gas, along with improved catalysts, backpressure EGR, and high energy ignition.

Ford is depending heavily on the improved catalyst technology being developed for them by their suppliers and now being tested and evaluated by Ford. This improved catalyst technology, which Ford expects to achieve improved conversion efficiency at high mileage, results from improvements in catalyst material and larger catalyst volume.

Ford is also investigating other areas which may have impact on systems for the 0. Among these radial flow monoliths, 2r02 - copper chromite base metal oxidation catalysts, and sonic carbure- tion. It may be that these developmental areas are investigations for future post introduction, and Ford claims the sonic carburetor can only be in production in Part of the length of time necessary for the introduction of a sonic carburetor, in the opinion of the report team, is Ford's evident desire to develop their own sonic carburetor like Dresser's, and they may be repeating some of the work already done by Dresser.

Ford is rather unique in that they are running developmental durability fleets targeted toward 0. Most manufacturers are not. These fleets are being used to screen and evaluate catalysts for possible use in model year Ford did not supply detailed descriptions of the vehicles being durability tested, so it is not known if the systems included all of the components that Ford actually plans to use in Because another fleet will be started after the two fleets are finished the report team concludes that the durability data submitted by Ford was on less than full effort systems.

Even though, the results for the vehicles with highest mileage were below the 0. The report team has concluded that Ford, like other manufacturers, is developing this type of system in anticipation of a NOx target higher than 0. Indications of Ford's attitude toward meeting 0. The report team concludes that Ford's conventional engine effort is also targeted toward a NOx level higher than 0. Ford's efforts with independent developers of systems with potential for 0.

Currently, almost one year later, Ford reported no tests on such a vehicle. Ford has tested a Questor system in the past year and typical of most automobile manufacturers' relationships with independent developers, the vehicle was tested, something was found to be wrong with it, and the vehicle was returned to Questor to have them fix it. However, the redirection away from 0.

This is considered by the report team to be unfortunate, since the biggest problem with the PROCO at 0. The Federal system will include quick chokes, EGR, and oxidation catalysts on virtually all models. Ported Ported Ported Ported Ported Ported Ported CAT All catalysts are pellet type with either cylindrical or spherical pellets. California models will be very similar to the 49 state models with AIR added. Systems to be Used - Model Year GM has several catalytic control systems under consideration for the.

Another catalytic system uses very lean carhuretion in conjunction with an oxidation catalyst. Also studies are to begin to evaluate small manifold-mounted "start" catalysts for use with the larger main catalyst. Previous experience with manifold- mounted catalysts should prove valuable. The report team feels that the very lean carburetion plus oxidation catalyst system is potentially one of the more initial cost effective systems we have seen demonstrated at the emissions level.

The Chevrolet vehicles are shown in Table GM-2 and can be. The fuel economy of all three prototypes is down from the mpg of the comparable Federal vehicles. Other prototypes at levels also show fuel economy losses from the models. Not all systems were complete; however, this does indicate that the CD pellet catalyst may no longer be capable of doing all the work. A catalytic system with improved "light off" characteristics could help eliminate the fuel economy losses.

One GM vehicle did achieve the levels in certification. One is a dual catalyst system with reduction catalysts mounted near the exhaust manifolds and the oxidation catalyst in the underfloor location. A 3-way catalyst system is also being considered. Another system includes the 3-way catalyst followed by secondary AIR and a "clean up" oxidation catalyst. All three systems have demonstrated the levels at low mileage, but durability has not been established for any of them. GM effort at. The Nippon-Denso NOx catalyst in the dual catalyst system completed 24, miles below.

Dual catalyst vehicles exhibited somewhat poorer fuel economy due to their richer carburetion to create the reducing atmosphere in the NOx catalyst. Other Systems Alternate engine development has received considerable attention at GM. The prechamber stratified charge engine appears to be the most likely to succeed, but all indications are that it would not appear during the time frame of this report.

GM is concerned that exhaust aftertreatment devices will be needed at levels to reduce fuel economy losses. A dual shaft, regenerated gas turbine has been reported which has achieved. This vehicle was not fully described, but at least part of the engine control system used was not contained in the vehicle. Practical in-vehicle installa- tion of those components has not been achieved.

Fuel economy of this vehicle was not stated; however, fuel economy and cost were said to be specific problems. Single shaft turbines are also being investigated. In the opinion of the report team, gas turbines will not be competitive in the automotive market until a materials breakthrough permits signi- ficantly higher temperature turbine operation.

These engine problems include combustion noise, particulate emissions, exhaust odor, and cold starting, according to GM. GM also noted the inability of the Diesel to certify at the NOx level. The rotary engine program has slowed considerably since GM postponed its introduction.

According to GM, "Our decision was based primarily on the conclusion that we did not possess emission technology which would permit us to meet the standards at reasonable fuel economy levels". The report team concluded that when optimized for fuel economy, GM's rotary is barely competitive with conventional engines. Since emission controls beyond those which are fuel penalty-free are needed to make GM's rotary meet even the Interim standards, the engine is not competitive in fuel economy.

Table GM-4 compares the GM rotary fuel economy to that of other vehicles of similar inertia weight and power to weight ratios. It should be noted that the GM rotary-engined vehicle in table GM-4 does not meet the Interim standards, while the other vehicles do.

Also no new data was presented on the cold start HC storage system. Each level is further divided into underfloor catalyst and manifold catalyst vehicles. The manifold catalysts are mounted immediately behind the exhaust manifolds. Engine Trans. IW Federal from Calif. The type of service is primarily taxicab and the reported results were generally good.

The average emission levels of reported sample groups were within the design goals and system durability appeared to be good. The California 2. A total of 20 catalyst failures were experienced, but seven of these occurred after 50, miles and four involved monoliths.

All catalyst failures resulted from overtemperature conditions caused by engine misfiring. The misfiring was attributed to overly lean carburetion and fouled spark plugs. GM reported that occasional inadvertant fueling with low lead fuel, 0. GM also reported the results of an investigation of catalyst fouling on lead and phosphorous.

After 3, miles of operation on leaded fuel, an underfloor catalyst car and a manifold catalyst car were operated for 7, miles on unleaded fuel. The underfloor catalyst regained nearly all of the lost efficiency but the manifold catalyst did not recover.

Following 6, miles of operation on high phosphorous fuel, the catalyst efficiency of several cars was cut in half. Subse- quent operation on clean fuel did not result in catalyst recovery. GM reported that the catalyst durability of the AMA schedule car was fairly typical of the taxi and highway groups.

Durability Testing - Model Year A second filed durability test is being conducted by GM on 25 Olds- mobiles operated in California under customers service conditions. Thirteen of the cars were tailored to meet the. The thirteen cars in the first group have accumulated between 25, and 33, miles and the second group has accumulated between 17, and 21, miles.

Both groups average emissions are below the design goals but several vehicles have exceeded the goals on individual tests. The average emissions for eleven cars of the first group at 24, miles were. It should be noted that maintenance was performed on the emission systems prior to testing, a procedure not allowed in official EPA certification testing. The fuel economy results of the Oldsmoblle fleets are interesting because the second group of cars with lower emissions had better fuel economy.

The average dynamometer fuel economies were 9. The average emissions were reduced from. GM reported low mileage emissions data on 41 proving ground cars which GM stated represented the "current state-of-development" toward meeting the. The data indicates that hydrocarbon control is the area needing the most improvement. It is difficult to assess the probability of these cars complying with the requirement at high mileage because practically no data was given for above miles.

However 13 of these had completed testing in and Only one additional dual catalyst system was tested on the AMA schedule in The car tested in exceeded the HC and CO allowable level at miles and exceeded the NOx level at 25, miles. The emissions performance of this group was very unsatisfactory. The average NOx level exceeded 0. GM reported durability test data for two cars equipped with three-way catalysts. These cars operated on the AMA schedule. Both cars experienced rapid catalyst-- deterioration.

Progress and Problems - Model Year GM has made progress in the area of system development and optimization for model year GM's major problem in meeting the standards is HC control. Tests run by GM with T77 prototype vehicles equipped with 50, mile catalysts from certification showed that HC emissions were generally too high. The GM approaches toward improving the HC control capability lie in two areas, improving the systems and the lean burn plus ox.

The warm-up converter was discussed very vaguely by GM and no data on such systems was supplied. This is a good example of an advanced control approach possibly being held In the wings until it is needed. Ford stated that one of the problems they saw with their GM pelleted catalyst fleet was the deterioration of light-off capability, which a start catalyst would help.

GM has developed other approaches like fuel distillers, charcoal traps, and super EFE that were investi- gated and then not used because they did not have to be, and possibly because they tended to be more costly. GM's second approach for could have few if any of these extra-cost hurdles to overcome, in the opinion of the report team. The lean burn plus ox-cat approach does not use EFE, EGR or an air pump, therefore this system can have significant cost reduction potential, In the opinion of the report team.

This system also may have HC problems since GM's lean burn technology does not appear to have the HC control capability that the best lean burn systems have DresserTs, for example. Not much in the way of durability testing of advanced systems was reported by GM, another problem area.

Based on GM's status report, the report team concludes that GM is waiting to see what happens in the suspension hearing before they gear up to test such Improved systems extensively, although it appears that the lean burn plus ox-cat approach will be continued anyway because of its cost potential. The most far-reaching problem at the 0. Despite using systems that may be considered too complicated or expensive for the conven- tional engine, GM could not get the HC as low as necessary with a catalyst system, and they did not want to use the thermal reactor approach.

The report team concludes that GM won't be able to certify their catalyst-equipped rotary at 0. For GM to be able to use the catalyst approach they will have to improve the basic engine as Toyo Kogyo is doing, possibly by going stratified charge. If the standards are 0. The major problem with the 3-way catalysts is conversion efficiency at extended mileage.

GM did not report any results with this system with an oxidation catalyst. GM also appears to have made progress in another area related to emissions, but not specifically mentioned by GM as emission control technology. This is in the area of vehicle weight. Past GM development vehicles targeted toward and standards have ranged over the current GM inertia weight range, with most of the test vehicles being in the 5, and 5, Ib.

However, this year's status report showed most of the larger vehicles being tested at 4, and 4, Ib. This lighter weight is in the direction of improving both emission control capability and fuel economy. The report team hopes that the inference of lighter weight full-size GM cars in the future that we drew from their status report is correct.

While most manufacturers build their own engines, many of the components used in and on the engines are purchased from suppliers. These engine related components can include; pistons, piston rings, bearings, bolts, valves, spark plugs, carburetors, etc. When emission control devices became necessary the industry often looked to their suppliers not only for the actual production of the hardware but the design expertise as well.

The best example of an emission control device that has been designed and developed outside the industry is the catalytic converter. Some domestic manufacturers have developed considerable capability in this area but the suppliers generally have more capability in the catalyst area than the automakers themselves. Much of the emission control hardware developed by suppliers has been reported on by the automakers in their annual status reports but several suppliers have done a sufficient amount of work independent of any auto manufacturer to warrant separate coverage in this section of the report.

The four most significant non- auto manufacturer developers in the past year have been: 1. Gould, Inc. Dresser Industries 3. Yamaha 4. Questor Automotive Products. The position the suppliers take on the feasibility of meeting the statutory emission standards for and is somewhat different than the position taken by most automobile manufacturers, especially the domestic manufacturers.

The suppliers have a vested interest in the maintenance of the standards as they hope to sell the technology and hardware necessary to achieve compliance. The automakers, on the other hand, cannot "sell" the low emission characteristics of their cars to the average new car buyer. To an automaker the standards represent a cost that has little benefit, in our opinion.

The emission control development approach taken by the suppliers has generally been more aggressive than that taken by the automakers. The auto industry was familiar with Gould as an OEM supplier of components. Other Gould products include; copper foil for circuit boards , dry cell batteries, small electric motors, torpedoes, powdered metal products, rubber suspension components, air filters and oil filters.

The metallic reduction catalysts developed by Gould were discussed at great length during the Suspension Hearings. The Gould catalysts are designated as "GEM! Gould's catalyst, a monel based metallic catalyst deposited on a metallic wire mesh, demonstrated very high efficiency on several test vehicles most built by Gould but the durability aspects were questionable. Several automobile manu- facturers reported catastrophic catalyst failures at low mileage.

Even the best data, accumulated by Gould, showed rapidly decreasing efficiency beginning at around 20, miles. It was the report team's judgement at that time '76 Hearings that the lack of sophisticated fuel metering systems and air metering systems on the prototype vehicles was responsible for much of the poor durability performance. Gould has also theorized that the durability problems were due to poor metering and they felt the amount of catalyst deterioration was proportional to the frequency of lean excursions too much air entering the engine per unit of fuel.

Since the time of the Hearings, Gould has continued to invest in NOx catalyst development. Recent efforts have been devoted to finding a way to solve the poor metering induced problems without actually improving fuel metering. Instead of relying on outside sources to develop a fuel metering system that would keep oxygen spikes as occur on lean excursions from reaching the NOx catalyst, Gould has developed a triple bed catalyst system to solve the problem. In front of the usual two beds NOx catalyst and oxidation catalyst is a small oxidation catalyst that functions as an oxygen remover.

With this system installed lean excursions no longer affect the NOx catalyst because the 0- remover, or "Getter", eliminates the oxygen before it reaches the NOx catalyst. A schematic of the Gould Getter system is shown in Figure 7. During the federal emission test, 4 percent oxygen spikes which normally occur on shifts and decelerations are almost completely eliminated by the first bed of the new three bed system. This performance was demonstrated to a member of the report team in Gould's Cleveland laboratory.

The engine dyno test did not really test the capability of the getter to protect the GEM catalyst from oxygen spikes as transient operation was not included. The test did show, however, that when the latest Gould catalyst, GEM 68, is not subjected to oxygen spikes it can retain high, stable efficiency for 50, miles worth of exhaust gas.

Table 7. Gould also reported the microstructure of the catalyst indicated 'some surface generation but not to the extent leading to an exfoliation failure. One vehicle test had reached 50, miles. The results are shown in Table 7. Inspection of the catalyst revealed the rear support plate for the catalyst had broken and allowed the rolled coil of metal mesh to telescope rearward.

The catalyst was pushed back together and a new backplate was installed but activity remained low. Gould theorized that the poor efficiency resulted from a non-uniform exhaust gas flow distribution through the catalyst bed as the result of high localized exhaust gas velocities eroding the catalyst surface when it was in the "telescoped" condition after the backplate failure. The backplate failure that caused this condition is readily solvable, in the opinion of the report team.

Three larger vehicles have reached 25, miles of durability and their high mileage results are shown in Table 7. Chevrolet CID. These are impressive results in light of the fact that no advanced HC control techniques were employed and EGR systems were simple non-proportional units. Fuel economy was essentially equal to the versions of the same cars despite the sub -.

NOx conversion efficiency of the GEM catalysts has been relatively stable on all three cars"since low mileage testing. Other Testing Programs Gould is involved in a program with the state of New York involving the in-service testing of three Staten Island Police cars equipped with their system. These vehicles are still at low mileage and will be periodically tested by the N. City lab as they accumulate mileage. At the writing of this report the level of effort on Gould's system by each of these manufacturers is low, and has been low since EPA's public announcement that 0.

Gould's in-house durability programs have always shown substantially better performance than any programs involving an automobile manufacturer. Testing at the automakers has often resulted in catastrophic catalyst failures due to total ignition failures. In the summer of , for example, Gould delivered a vehicle to Chrysler for testing which had met the levels at Gould's laboratory in Cleveland.

Car delivered to Chrysler by Gould. Chrysler experiences misfire en route to proving ground for emission testing. Chrysler mechanic experiences total ignition failure at speed while looking for problems with car. Catalysts returned to Gould for checking.

X-Ray analysis and steady state efficiency tests are okay. Chrysler re-installs catalyst on test car, runs out of gas on emission test due to fuel weight system foul up. Chrysler takes car to proving ground. Experiences two ignition failures and runs out of gas in first 12 hours of testing.

Car is sent back to Chrysler engineering, runs out of gas again on emission test. Damaged catalysts are returned to Gould. Gould has consistently demonstrated superior capability at optimizing for low emissions with vehicles using their NOx catalyst despite the fact that their experience with automotive systems optimization is minimal compared to that of the auto industry. EPA has been involved in confirmatory emission tests and particulate emission tests of Gould vehicles over the past year.

Preliminary particulate test results indicate there is some nickel emissions from high mileage catalysts but the type of nickel compound emitted and the emission rate has not been firmly determined and more work is underway. This might be expected from the steam reforming that could occur across the NOx catalyst bed.

If further tests validate preliminary data, it would ; mean that the total HC emissions from Gould vehicles are less harmful than from 'oxidation catalysts only' vehicles. Besides demonstrating superior NOx catalyst efficiency Gould has shown the potential for achieving low NOx levels and good fuel economy simultaneously.

Gould's major problem is lack of industry support in the system optimization area where Gould lacks expertise. Particulate emissions from the NOx catalyst are a potential problem that needs further quantification. Indications are that if sub Since Dresser has been involved in the development of a sonic carburetor known as the "Dresserator". Dresser felt the potential for the carburetion system, which was formerly under development at Stanford Research Institute, was sufficient to allow them to eventually obtain licensing fees from the automobile industry for its use.

The Dresser concept is to achieve fine fuel atomization over a wide range of operating conditions by maintaining a choked flow condition in the carburetor throat and metering fuel upstream of the throat so that is must pass through the shock wave that occurs when the flow goes sub-sonic in the diffuser which is located downstream of the throat.

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